The previous sections of the tutorial handled the basic formulas behind building a Fourier model and creating a set of input functions.

This section deals with formula implementation on the spreadsheet, the brief VBA code and the charting of the Fourier transform components.

## A Fourier Transform Model in Excel #3

by George Lungu

– This is a tutorial about the implementation

of a Fourier transform in Excel. The first part

went over adjustments that make the general

Fourier transform formula applicable on real

time sampled signals with a finite number of

samples.

– This second part dealt with the Excel

implementation of the input signals.

– This third part is concerned with

implementation of the Fourier transform

formulas (real, imaginary, magnitude and

phase), the structure of the macros driving the

model and the charting of the Fourier

transform components

<excelunusual.com> by George Lungu

### A quick review of the formulas:

The Fourier transform formula derived in the first section of the tutorial is:

Real part – Re(G(f)) Imaginary part – Im(G(f))

N

Re G(f ) h g(nh)cos(2 f nh)

Underlined with green are quantities already existent in the worksheet. Underlined with red are

quantities needed to be further calculated in the worksheet.

– “h” is an input parameter situated in cell B11, N is 4999 and it is the height of the calculation tables

– t = nh is the sampled time series and it is located in range A41:A5040

– g(nh) for n=0,1,2,…4999 is the sampled real input function and it’s located in range B41:B5040

### Implementation of the active formulas :

We will set up the spreadsheet to calculate the real and

imaginary parts of the FF for only one frequency point, then using a special macro we will change the

frequency incrementally in a loop and record the calculated Fourier transform in each of the frequency points

from the start frequency to the end frequency.

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-Recognizing the fact that we need to estimate the Fourier transform in a series of frequency points we have to

replace the frequency “f” with a sampled series of frequencies.

– Since we set up the initial conditions to contain fstart, , fstop and the number of frequency points (#points), the

frequency can be expressed as: f =fstart + m*Df, where Df = (fstop – fstart,)/(#points) and m is the index# (cell B4).

– In this case the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform become:

Let’s see how to calculate the remaining parts in the formulas (red underline):

The frequency will be calculated in cell E41: “=B1+B4*(B2-B1)/B3”

this value will be calculated for n=0,1,2,…, 4999 in range C41:C5040;

– cell C41: “=B41*COS(2*PI()*E$41*A41)” copy C41 down to C5040

this value will be calculated for n=0,1,2,…, 4999 in range D41:D5040;

– cell D41: “=B41*SIN(2*PI()*E$41*A41)” copy D41 down to D5040

this value will be calculated in cell F41: “=B5*SUM(C41:C5040)”

this value will be calculated in cell G41: “=-B5*SUM(D41:D5040)”

<www.excelunusual.com> 3

### Let’s calculate the amplitude and the phase of the Fourier transform:

this value will be calculated in cell H41: “=SQRT(F41^2+G41^2)”

Phase G( f ) atan value calculated degrees in cell I41: “=180*ATAN(G41/F41)/PI()”

Overview of the calculation area:

– Above, there is a snapshot of the spreadsheet calculation area discussed so far.

– Range E41:I41 contains the final Fourier formulas. Everything below (range E42:I5040) will be filled with

information from range E41:I41 by a copy-paste type of macro. A reset macro will clear range E42:I5040.

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The “Reset()” and “Calculate_()” macros: Dim s As Boolean

————————————————

Sub Reset()

– The “Reset()” macro clears all the information from any previous calculation which is in range E42:I5040. The macro also resets the index number.

[B4] = 0

[E42:I5040].Clear

End Sub

– The worksheet computes the Fourier transform for a single frequency points that would have resulted into an excessively index number.

————————————————

Sub Calculate_()

x

s = Not (s)

hundred

Do While s = True And [B4] < [B3]

large file.

DoEvents

[B4] = [B4] + 1

– A good compromise is to have the “Calculate_()” macro change the frequency from start to end in small increments and save the results in a table of constants. This way we have just a few cell with formulas and [E42:I2040] = [E41:I2039].Value

the file is kept at a reasonable size. The only problem with this method is that we trade file size for speed.

– Boolean variable “s” has the role of allowing the same button to be used for starting and pausing the macro.

– The “Calculate_()” macro has a loop which achieve two purposes. The first is to take the active calculation

results and store them as constants in a table (it does this by a copy-paste operation). The second purpose is to

increment the index thus allowing the worksheet to calculate a Fourier function for a new updated frequency

point during every loop cycle.

– The “Do” loop is a conditional loop and it can run only if s = True and the index is smaller than the maximum

number of points specified in the input parameter area. This achieves two goals, one is that the macro can be

started and paused from the same button, and the other is that the macro will run the calculation through the

number of frequency points specified and then stop. A new run is then possible only after a reset.

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### Charting the Fourier transform components:

-Chart the input function of time on a 2D

scatter chart:

X-Values Range: A41:A5040, Y-Values Range:

B41:B5040

– Chart the amplitude part of the Fourier

transform function of frequency on a 2D

scatter chart:

X-Values Range: E41:E5040, Y-Values Range:

H41:H5040

– Chart the phase part of the Fourier transform

function of frequency on a 2D scatter chart:

X-Values Range: E41:E5040, Y-Values Range:

I41:I5040

– Chart the real part of the Fourier transform

function of frequency on a 2D scatter chart:

X-Values Range: E41:E5040, Y-Values Range:

F41:F5040

– Chart the imaginary part of the Fourier

transform function of frequency on a 2D

scatter chart:

X-Values Range: E41:E5040, Y-Values Range:

G41:G5040

to be continued…

by George Lungu <www.excelunusual.com> 6