Five different shape alterations are presented:
1. Resizing – which can be done independently on each axis by multiplying the coordinates by a certain factor while the shape is centered in the origin.
2. Translation – which can be done independently on each axis by adding or subtracting a term to each coordinate.
3. Simple rotation – formulas were derived for rotation of a shape centered in origin by a certain angle.
4. Rotation of a shape around its own axis within the scene – the exact derivation was not given but the recipe is to translate the shape back to origin, then rotate it and then translate the shape to it’s final position (translation + rotation + translation)
5. Scene rotation – this is just a simple rotation but the shapes in the scene are held fixed at their own coordinates.